התגבשות נוסח התפילה במסורת החזנות הספרדית - ירושלמית עד הגיעה למעמדה כיום

Ezra Barnea

The concept of "Spanish-Jerusalem cantorial" has gained a place in the consciousness of the Sephardic-Mizrahi public as an accurate Israeli version. Was he? Are there moves to the prevailing assumption that the Sephardi-Jerusalem cantorial is ancient and authentic?
The adults among us do not think so. These, and few, who listened to the melodies of the Sephardic cantorial tradition, to which they were accustomed, where they prayed and sang until the late thirties, hear in the current Sephardic Sephardi cantillation a falsehood and even a jarring. From the 1930s the milky version became the version representing the Spanish cantorial, or what is now called the Spanish-Jerusalem cantorial. Since then sounds sound different to those who remember advancing days. Unfortunately, the tradition of the past that was passed orally has not been recorded at all in the characters and has been recorded only slightly, so it is difficult to rely on solid facts in this field.
In this article we will examine the processes and changes that have taken place in the tradition of Sephardic cantorialism or the "Sephardic Chazanut Yerushalayim," as Abraham Zvi Idelson called it, until it came to the relatively new concept of "Spanish Jerusalem".

The formation of a local version
In the center of musical activity stood the cantor who composed melodies himself, or suited the pieces of the melodies of well-known poets. Many of the melodies were recorded and transmitted as an oral tradition for future generations.
The cantor needed two basic musical qualities: a pleasant and pleasant evening voice. The melody implies the musical ability, natural or acquired, which must control the fundamentals of music.
Each cantor is first and foremost the cantor of the particular synagogue in which he serves in the sacred. The tradition of that place is created in the same synagogue for a long time and is regularly worshiped there.
We can not determine that the status of a particular cantor is that of a cantor - the city or the neighborhood, as there is a rabbi, a rabbi, and the like, because the cantor performs his prayers only within the walls of the synagogue in which he serves. If he has won and formed a community and his name goes before him, then they will hear out, and others come to learn melodies, performance, melodies he composed - if he composed - or tunes he assimilated in the sung prayers.
The cantor can not ignore the traditions of his congregation, which have been formulated over the generations, especially those of the High Holidays and the High Holidays. At these times he feels obligated - especially to the tradition of the community in which he serves in the sacred. However, it must be taken into account that the tradition of Sephardic cantorial transmission is oral, and that everything that is orally transmitted changes over time.
This creates local traditions, the traditions of synagogues, which are somewhat different from each other, a difference stemming from the desire of each cantor to maintain the traditional, traditional text, on the one hand, and to renew and unite on the other, .
And the difficulty of passing on another oral tradition to the question of who determines whether or not it is possible to determine what the authentic is, what the source is, and when the changes took place.
It can be assumed that the tradition of Sephardic prayer was first formulated on Spanish soil. Prof. Amnon Shiloah notes, among other things, that the consolidation of the Jewish musical tradition in Spain is directly related to the changes that took place in the middle of the tenth century in the cultural and social life of the Jewish community there. This tradition was part of the new cultural patterns that stemmed from the spiritual blend of Jewish culture with Arab culture.
The ideals that guided the spiritual design of the Jewish intellectual created a map that contained many components of all the knowledge he had to acquire in all fields of the spirit, and the music was one of them, similar to that of the Arab maskilim. This creates a situation in which the consumers of synagogue singing contributed with their encouragement and active participation in the enrichment, implementation and establishment of the prayer.
The prosperity of Jewish culture led to the enrichment of liturgical poetry. It was when Duncan the son of Bert from Baghdad arrived in Cordoba in the middle of the tenth century. His poetry was adapted to the Arab weights, and the musical element took on an important place (later Rabbi Yisrael Najara would do the same). While in Babylon, Duncan Ben Lebert embodied the idealist type who composed songs of praise, composed melodies and sang them in the framework of prayer and celebrations.
With the expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492) the exiles traveled to various countries and brought the songs and melodies with them to their new places.
"The fate of the kibbutz that is called Sephardi is different from the fate of the kibbutzim that were formed during the exile, because for four and a half years we moved away from the land of its residence in Spain and dispersed throughout the world, and more. Remains faithful to the tradition of our forefathers. "
It is necessary to distinguish between the different kibbutzim to which the exiles came. Some came to the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans and Turkey, some came to Morocco. Others migrated to the West, were called Portuguese-Spaniards and lived in completely different conditions from the first two groups. Their main centers in Western Europe were Amsterdam, London, Hamburg, Vienna, Paris and Gibraltar.
It follows that these exiles came out with the same musical cultural baggage and sucked from the same roots. And yet, did the traditions remain intact in all their places of dispersion? Which one remains faithful to his musical tradition? When we hear the musical traditions, especially those of the High Holy Days, we feel the differences that have arisen between those who migrated to the Balkans and those who came to Western Europe.
It's easy for us to examine things. There is a natural tendency to preserve, with some fanaticism, the melodies of the terrible days, which are heard once a year, according to which it is possible to re-examine, every year, the unifying of the diaspora.
In the wake of the changes that have taken place over the years, we have no doubt that the exiles and their descendents have had a great influence in Western communities such as London, Paris and Amsterdam. Most of the cantors came to these places from Morocco and reached dominance, which to a large extent pushed the tradition that prevailed in these places.

Crystallization of the Jerusalem version

In Spain, the Spaniards spoke Sephardic-Castilian and Sephardic songs, and their melodies were assimilated into the melodies of prayers. Social and economic life developed around the synagogues, where the batei midrash and all public institutions were established.
The newspaper Sha'arei Tzion says that in 7 - 1836 a decision was made that the Sephardic synagogues that were founded that year in Jerusalem, known today as Yochanan ben Zakkai, Elijah the Prophet, a small crowd and the Istamboli synagogues, would pray only in the version of the Jews of Castile.  
Although this version was enforced on the Sephardim and Sephardim who came to Jerusalem from the Spanish Diaspora and the Middle East and North Africa, but as the time passed from the date of setting the regulation, it was reduced and expired. During the period of the British mandate, with the immigration from the Middle East and the Balkans, and with the construction of additional synagogues in the New City and other cities, the regulation and customs of the various exiles ceased to exist, and with the arrival of the great waves of immigration after the establishment of the State, ?
However, at least one synagogue in the new city continued to strictly observe this old regulation, according to which the Jews of Castile should pray: the Yagel Ya'akov synagogue of the Monastir congregations, where they prayed in the style of Aragon, which was common in Monastir. On Yom Kippur of 1936, prayed Monsieur Elzaphan, cantor of the synagogue, the form of Aragon. Some of the worshiper synagogue, which keep the installation, sought cantor prayed Castilian style, and in the midst of the Yom Kippur War broke out fight because formulas. 
Cantors were mostly Spanish Torah scholars and great scholars, and some of them served as rabbis and sages of the various communities, knowing the melodies of the prayer that were passed orally, but did they have knowledge of the Makamim? It is reasonable to assume that some of them had basic knowledge of the basic makamim: Ajam, Rashed, Army, Shiga and Hijaz, which they purchased for the prayers of the High Holidays and the High Holy Days. The cantors who had no knowledge of the Makams prayed according to the tradition they received.
I believe that the great turning point occurred at the beginning of the century, with the immigration of immigrants from Aleppo (Aram Tzuba) known among others as having a tradition in poetry and poetry. The poetry of the supplications that they brought with them pushed aside the tradition of the Spanish prayer service used in the Old City until the turn of the century. The singing of the supplications that he instituted was new and guaranteed to the ears of the listeners, and she attracted cantors and Torah scholars, and through it the women of Aleppo began to take the lead in the Spanish cantorial.  
The new melodies were assimilated into the liturgical passages sung in the houses of the miracle, and thus the previous Spanish poetry began to squeeze out of them. Since then only a few have continued in the previous tradition.

Immigrants of Persia and Bukhara and their formula

The new testimonies that arrived in Israel abandoned their customs and melodies and quickly absorbed the Spanish version. Regarding the Persians, Raphael Chaim HaCohen writes that between Pesach and Shavuot, they would read Pirkei Avot in the traditional melody according to the custom of our Sephardic brethren.
The "Lovers of Zion" synagogue founded by Raphael Haim Cohen adopted the Spanish melodies, and only the reading of the haftara was read in the Persian language.
In his book "The Jews of Persia," Hanina Mizrahi notes:

The melodies of the Sephardic synagogue, especially of Aram Tzuba, slowly penetrated them and rejected the traditional Persian melody. The influence of Sephardic Jews, Espanolite speakers, on the Jews of Persia was enormous. The pleasant melody of the Torah's taste, the melodious melody of their prayers, the grief and sorrow of the nation held in the lamentations of Tisha B'Av, and the deep tones of repentance in their prayers during the High Holy Days, had a profound emotional impact on the Jews of Persia. It is only in remote places that on Tisha B'Av or on the High Holy Days we hear the sounds of the Persian melody, which is now considered an ancient thing that is about to be shelved. 

Such an extreme sentence attests to the strong influence that the Sephardi community had on the immigrants who had just arrived in Israel.
The Bukharan community, which came to Israel in the 1890s, was similar to the Sephardim, who were associated with the Sephardim and cooperated with them in the areas of communal organization, who received Sephardic teachers and cantors, who led Sephardi customs in prayer and the Spanish accent in daily life. The various emissaries from the Land of Israel to Bukhara, who had come from the Land of Israel to the Bukhara, had become leaders of Spain. The most prominent among them was Rabbi Ya'akov Meir zt "l, who later served as the Chief Rabbi of Rishon LeZion, and
among the rabbis of the Bukharan community is Rabbi Mola Ari Haimov, who served as rabbi and cantor of the community. The Sephardic version, with its various pleasantries, and according to the makamim used every week, and Rabbi Haimov, like the other cantors of the community, prayed on the holidays and on the High Holy Days in the style of Bukharan Jewry.

The
  same process that characterized the Persians and the Bukhars also applies to the Yemenites and the Mughrabi - the epithets of the Jews of Morocco until the new immigration.
Quite a few Yemenite cantors adopted the Sephardic tradition and served as cantors in distinct Sephardic synagogues. The members of the Alandef family - the brothers Yosef, who was killed in the War of Independence and was separated for a long life - are a clear example of this phenomenon: Yosef served as cantor in the Al Hamishmar synagogue, And R. Raphael served as a cantor in a synagogue of the Sha'arei Zion Jews,
when the Yemenites joined the Sephardic community in Jerusalem (1882) and undertook to accept Sephardic customs in exchange for an economic promise. Yemenites who pray in special Yemenite synagogues pray in the Yemenite style as in ancient times.

That from Jerusalem came
 another version of the penetration of the melodies in Jerusalem into all the communities that make up the marriage ties between the communities, which naturally contributed to the removal of barriers. Today we are faced with the dilemma that exists among mixed families over the question of what to adopt on Shabbat Bar Mitzvah, and how to read the Torah reading or haftara.
But not only the processes within Jerusalem have formulated the new Sephardic-Jerusalem formula. A significant portion of Sephardic melodies in Sephardic communities are attributed to the Bukharan, Italian, Turkish, North African, Babylonian, Kurdish, Indian, Libyan, Tunisian, Syrian, and Afghan religious communities. Cantors where they came.
Cantors from Jerusalem who moved to Tel Aviv from the 1920s brought the musical baggage they heard and learned in Jerusalem. Such were Nissan Cohen Melamed, Benjamin Mizrahi, Rafael Alandaf, Yosef Haimov and others.
In 1927, a cantorial school called "Parchi Kehuna" was founded at the initiative of Rabbi Ben-Zion Meir Chai Uziel, in order to prepare cantors for prayer alongside the training of rabbis and ritual slaughterers. This institution was preceded by Rabbi Yehuda Kastel in Jerusalem, who gave classes in groups of Spanish cantors, still in the original Spanish melodies.
The institution was headed by Rabbi Nissim Korkidi, the cantor of the Ohel Mo'ed Synagogue, who had a pleasant voice, and was then directed by Nissan Cohen Melamed, who headed the Midrasha of the Spanish cantorial in Tel Aviv And was a teacher of biblical tastes at Bar-Ilan University and the Levinsky Seminary.
As direct influences on the shaping of contemporary Spanish cantorials, schools should be seen as cantors established in recent years, with curricula for the prayer books according to the Makamim, along with the study of piyyutim in the maqam that is being studied at that time, The Central Institute has been in existence for 17 years in Jerusalem, within the framework of Renanot, the Jewish Music Institute, and comes to it from all over the country. It has branches throughout the country, in Bat Yam, Kfar Saba, Kiryat Gat and Beer Sheva.
In these schools the prayer texts are studied in accordance with the so-called "Spanish-Yerushalmi version". Most of the teachers come from Jerusalem or studied in Jerusalem, so that the formula is going to buy him a place in Israel.
Another way to spread Jerusalem's cantorial music throughout the country can be seen at the invitation of visiting cantors for Simcha and various events such as: Shabbat Shira, Parashat Yitro, Chanukah, Purim, etc. The audience enjoys the way the prayer is performed, and the tradition is gaining ground. Albums trips abroad even during the terrible days take their toll worldwide dissemination of cantors in Jerusalem.
Media Bhkniito considerable part of the concept of "Chazanout Spanish-Jerusalem" is relatively new, especially when the announcer introduces the Bard or Spanish Cantor C"hzn Jerusalem. "
Radio programs Bring the cantors and piyyutim to houses, cassettes, CDs and videos are distributed successfully and the Jerusalem cantorial line buys many listeners who prefer the Jerusalem version over other versions.

The Old Men from the New Generation The
 adults among us do not see the satisfaction of the Sephardic-Jerusalem style of prayer, because most of the segments of prayer that are sung today are assimilation of Arabic melodies adapted to Hebrew words.
While the congregation knows the melodies and participates with the cantors in singing in the synagogue, there is no mention of the original and the source of the tradition.
This was expressed, sadly, by one of the veteran cantors in Jerusalem who placed many students, Rabbi Yaakov Levi (died in 1983 at the age of 93). R. Jacob lived between the two periods and saw the changes that took place in the Spanish cantorial, and thus writes:

החזנות הספרדית היא המקורית והטהורה בעולם ובפרט בירושלים.
מזה כ- 60 שנה רבו העולים מארצות המזרח דוברי ערבית ואלו הביאו אתם מנגינות חדשות מהולות בלחנים ערביים.
נגינת "הבקשות" של החלבים יוצאי ארם צובא, השפיעה השפעה רצינית על החזנות הנשמעת כיום בבתי הכנסת הספרדיים ולואי והיתה זו נגינת הבקשות הנשמעת במוסיקה המלווה את התפילות והקדישים, אבל הפכנו את בתי הכנסת למרכז לשירה ערבית זולה, עם חיקויים של המוואלים... החזנים הצעירים לא זכו לשמוע את המקורות מפי חזנים ותיקים ומובהקים במסורת, אבל ליקטו פה ושם מפי חובבים וזמרים, ובנו להם חזנות שכולה קרעים מטולאים בלי כל שיטה, בלי תכנית, ורחוקים מהמסורת הנערצה והנכספת.

We shall not discuss in this article what is permitted and what is forbidden in the assimilation of songs in the synagogues and in the synagogue. Let us just mention that there are many opponents to this method.
In cantorial institutes, we try to preserve the traditional melodies, especially those of the High Holy Days.  

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